One of the most publicized integration efforts was organized by Daisy Lee Bates of the NAACP in 1957.
Nine African American teenagers, six girls and three boys, made headlines when they integrated a high school in Little Rock, Arkansas, despite open resistance from the governor and attacks by white mobs.
President Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock to support the black students.
Other African Americans integrated state universities.
In 1956 Autherine Lucy (later Foster) became the first black student at the University of Alabama. But, after a white mob threw eggs and shouted at her, the school branded her a troublemaker and kicked her out.
Nine years later, in 1965, Vivian Malone became that university’s first black graduate.
Charlayne Hunter (later Gault) was one of two black students to integrate the University of Georgia, in 1961. She later became a nationally known TV news reporter.
On the first day Little Rock Central High School was integrated, September 4, 1957, Elizabeth Eckford walked to class in Little Rock, Arkansas, surrounded by anti-integrationists screaming racial epithets and protected by silent National Guardsmen.