By 1960 more than a fourth of all U.S. biologists and mathematicians were women, but less than a tenth of all chemists and less then a twentieth of all physicists were women.
Only 1 percent of engineers were women.
In 1963 Marie Goeppert Mayer received the Nobel Prize in physics for her work on the structure of atoms.
Although she did not win the Nobel Prize, physicist ChienShiung Wu also made important discoveries about atomic particles, which supported the work of two male colleagues who won the Nobel Prize in 1957.
In 1977 physicist Rosalyn Yalow was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for her work in developing radioimmunoassay, a technique used to diagnose diabetes, thyroid disease, and other medical problems.
In her acceptance speech she pointed to the need to improve opportunities for women scientists: “The world cannot afford the loss of the talents of half its people.”