In the early 1900s several women were very successful in the beauty-care industry.
Two made fortunes with hair-care formulas for African American women: Annie Turnbo Malone and Madame C. J. Walker.
Both became self-made millionaires, and both donated money to projects that benefited the black community.
Two other women started their multi-million-dollar cosmetics empires at this time. Elizabeth Arden (whose real name was Florence Nightingale Graham) opened her first salon in New York in 1910.
Her rival, Polish-born Helena Rubinstein, opened her first New York salon in 1914, after building a reputation in Europe.