Temperance, or moderation, is the moral virtue of knowing when to stop. Temperance allows legitimate pleasure without degenerating into hedonism or debauchery.
Excessive drinking can lead to drunkenness, which can then lead to a number of unpleasant outcomes, for example, an accident in which someone gets hurt or killed. A social drink is temperate unless someone is an alcoholic or underage, then temperance dictates abstinence.
Working too little can produce laziness or sloth (acedia), whereas doing too much work can indicate that someone is a workaholic. Temperance or moderation seeks a happy balance in morally allowed entertainment and pleasure.
Abstinence (moderation in eating food), sobriety (moderation in drinking alcohol), and chastity (controlling sexual appetites) are three effects of temperance. If someone has little or no self-control, then complete abstinence or total sobriety may be the prudent course. Temperance is not the denial of pleasure (severe asceticism) nor the excess of or obsession with pleasure (hedonism or epicureanism).
Eutrapelia is a form of temperance related to sports and athletics. Excesses in sports can result in cheating, rioting, violence, and exploitation. Eutrapelia involves good sportsmanship, fair play, and not getting obsessed with the game, either on the part of the team or the fans. It allows players and spectators to have wholesome fun.
The Seven Deadly Sins as they have been known through the ages are: lust, gluttony, greed (avarice), sloth (laziness), wrath (anger), envy, and pride. They are called deadly or capital because they will kill the life of grace.
They can merit the pains of hell and eternal damnation unless one obtains the grace of forgiveness provided in the sacrament of Confession (Penance).