Many women joined mutual-aid societies, in which they paid dues into a kitty as insurance in case they got sick or lost their husbands.
Other women formed charitable groups, such as the Society for the Relief of Poor Widows with Small Children in New York.
Some groups emphasized education for poor children; others set up facilities for women workers. Groups called temperance societies tried to stop men from drinking liquor, and “moral reform” societies tried to end prostitution.
Most important for the later women’s movement were the women’s groups that opposed slavery.