From the late 1800s until the mid-1930s, the U.S. government forbade Native Americans from practicing their ceremonies and rituals.
As a result, many Native American women experienced a loss of status, for they had often played central roles in these ceremonies.
Nevertheless, some continued to be seen as holy women, as healers, and as spiritual leaders. One such woman was Blue Earring, a Lakota medicine woman in the early 1900s.
As her great-grandson remembered, “When she was in a camp people were never afraid of storms. Blue Earring would go out into that storm and (pray) and point her pipe, and the storm would change its path.”