In 1997 Jody Williams became the third U.S. woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
As the coordinator of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), she helped to draw attention to the horror of these explosive devices, which kill and injure some 26,000 people every year.
Williams and ICBL were responsible for getting ninety nations to sign a treaty to end their use of land mines.
In 1982, after President Ronald Reagan warned of the military threat of the Soviet Union, 11-year-old Samantha Smith wrote to the Soviet prime minister, Yuri Andropov, and urged him not to start a war.
Andropov gave a public reply to her letter, reassuring her that he, too, wanted peace, and he invited her to visit the Soviet Union with her family.
She went on a trip that made newspaper headlines and continued to speak out for peace after her return.
Sadly, however, in 1985 she was killed in a plane crash with her father.