The field of “domestic science,” later called home economics, was started at the turn of the century by Ellen Richards and other women.
They saw the homemaker as a manager of the household and proposed ways in which she could do her job more efficiently and scientifically.
They suggested, for example, how a woman could keep track of expenses and what she should do to eliminate germs.
Many of the early home economics leaders had been trained in chemistry and other sciences but found it impossible to get college teaching jobs in those fields.
Domestic science, which included the study of diet and nutrition, was almost the only field in which women scientists could become professors.