Jesus only had one human parent, his mother Mary. Her husband, Joseph, was not the biological father of Jesus as it was God the Holy Spirit who enabled the Virgin Mary to conceive without the cooperation of a human male. This is why Jesus is called the Son of God and the Son of Mary. Mary was human just like the rest of us in that she had two human parents (Saints Joachim and Ann) and she was as much a part of the human race as anyone else. This meant she was neither perfect nor divine. She was not a goddess. Her son, though, was divine; since she gave birth to the Son of God, by way of analogy, we can call her the mother of God because you cannot ever separate the divinity and humanity of Christ.
Jewish custom, tradition, and law made it clear that legal adoption had the same effect as natural birth. So Joseph, the legal spouse of Mary, became the legal (but not biological) father of Jesus. This is why Jesus is sometimes called the “carpenter’s son” or the “son of Joseph.” Even the Greeks and Romans had the same practice of showing equal privilege and rank to an adopted son as to a son from natural birth.
No one knows when Joseph died, but it was before Jesus began his public ministry in 30 AD. Present at His birth and circumcision, His foster father also taught Him the art of carpentry, as indicated in Mark 6:1: “Is this not the carpenter?” referring to Jesus as a carpenter Himself. Joseph is only mentioned in the Bible at the time of Jesus’ birth and when Jesus was twelve. Nothing more is known about him beyond that time, but it is speculated that Jesus grew up in Nazareth and learned carpentry from His foster father.
If Joseph died when Jesus was thirty, it would explain why Jesus only began his official public ministry as a rabbi at the age of thirty, just three years before his death. Until then, he was merely known as the carpenter’s son or as a carpenter himself. Mary survived to see her only son crucified, killed, and buried, but then to reunite with Him after the Resurrection on Easter. She lives beyond the Ascension of Jesus into heaven forty days after Easter, and she is recorded as present in the upper room on the day of Pentecost, when the Holy Spirit came upon her and the twelve apostles.
We do not know when the mother of Jesus left this earth. The Bible is silent about her departure. Catholicism does believe that when her time came, she was taken up body and soul (called the Assumption) by her divine Son into heaven. Though it is celebrated liturgically each year on August 15, no one knows for sure if that is the exact date.