Starting in the 1980s women held meetings on ecofeminism to discuss the relation between ecology, feminism, and women’s spirituality.
Female environmental scientists, like Jessica Tuchman Mathews at the World Resources Institute, spoke out against air pollution and global warming.
Native American women protested against industrial developments that threatened their peoples’ lands: Sarah James, for example, organized the Gwich’in people to fight against oil and gas companies’ plans for the Alaska coastal plain.
In California in the 1990s activist Judy Bari helped lead demonstrations to save the redwood forests.
In many ways, the environmental movement was sparked by biologist Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring (1962).
She exposed how the increasing use of pesticides was killing birds, silencing the birdsongs that traditionally announced spring, and harming humans.