Earthquakes themselves can be measured in terms of strength, duration, and location.
Various scientific instruments and comparative scales have been developed for these purposes. The seismograph measures all three. The Richter scale describes an earthquake’s strength, or intensity.
Of course, the destruction caused by earthquakes can be measured in many other ways: injuries, fatalities, homelessness; cost of damage, cost of reconstruction, time it takes to reconstruct; consequent fires and power outages; costs to businesses and the government; cost of earthquake insurance; days out of school; and much more.