Yes. For instance, on February 20, 1943, a few wisps of smoke appeared in a cornfield in the Mexican state of Michoacan.
Soon, lava and ash were spouting from an expanding vent that simply opened up in the ground. By the next day the cone was already 160 feet (50 meters) high. In just one year, the cone of a new volcano Paricutin—stood 1,475 feet (450 meters) from its base.
The Island of Surtsey, off the coast of Iceland, was created by a volcano that began erupting in November 1963. Surtsey began its life as a towering plume of smoke and water that boiled up from the depths of the ocean.
Day after day, smoke, flame, and ash shot out of the water until—within 31.4 years—a cone of cinders and ash had built up an island 1 square mile (2.5 square kilometers) in area and 560 feet (171 meters) above sea level.
After that, the main volcanic activity quieted down. The island is now inhabited by plants and animals, and Icelandic and U.S. scientists have jointly established a biological research program there.