Nutritionists use volunteers to test the chocolates.
But no, that’s not how they do it.
Although we associate calories with weight gain, a scientist hears “calories” and knows it refers to how much heat a food will generate if burned.
In fact, the word calorie comes from a Latin word that means “heat” and is defined as the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one Celsius degree.
Your digestion process is, in a sense, a slow-motion fire. As in a real fire, the energy of the food you eat is released by digestion.
The released energy can be used to move muscles or generate heat; or if you’re taking in more fuel than you can use immediately, your body stores it for later.
That’s fat, energy waiting to be used. For millions of years, fat was the equivalent of an emergency fuel tank to draw on in hard times. Then it became “ugly.”
So how do scientists measure the calories in food?
They burn it, using something called a bomb calorimeter, which measures how much extra energy comes out compared to how much went in.
Now here comes the confusing part: what is commonly called a “calorie” is actually a kilocalorie, a thousand of the scientists’ calories.
So that glazed doughnut doesn’t have just 235 calories; it’s really got 235 kilocalories, or 235,000 calories.
And you wonder why you’re having trouble keeping the weight off.