Western music uses the chromatic scale, equivalent to the white and black keys on a piano, which divides the scale into 12 equal parts.
Most popular and folk music uses only 7 of them, the equivalent of do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti.
The Arab scale divides the octave into 17 steps; the Indian scale, 22.
The Chinese use 5 notes, most commonly F, G, A, C, and D, which can be simulated by using only the black keys on a piano.
The Japanese use the Western scale, with one exception: their fa step is sharpened up a half step.
For example, in a C scale, they’d use F-sharp instead of E.