Many women were active as public health nurses, especially in the large cities.
They visited homes, offering advice to young mothers on cleanliness and child care, and they began to set up nursing programs in schools.
One woman doctor, Sara Josephine Baker, had a major impact on health in New York City. Through her public health care program, begun in 1908, she cut the infant death rate in the city by more than a third.
Poor women with large families supported Margaret Sanger and her sister Esther Byrne (fourth and fifth from the left, respectively) before the sisters’ court appearance in Brooklyn.
Their birth control clinic had been shut down by the police earlier; distributing such information was illegal.