Justice is giving each person his or her own due. An employer pays an employee a fair wage out of justice. An employee gives a full day’s work for a full day’s pay out of justice. Convicted criminals pay fines and/or go to prison as punishment for their crimes out of justice. Good is rewarded and evil punished because of justice.
There are three subcategories of justice: commutative, distributive, and social. Each one depends on the relationships involved. Commutative justice is between two persons or two equal entities, like two nations, two businesses, or two families. Distributive justice is between the one and the many. A citizen pays taxes to the government, which in turn protects the individual from domestic and foreign dangers as far as possible. Social justice is concerned with the whole of humanity and groups of people, and the responsibility of the individual and the state to work for the common good. Protecting the environment, defeating terrorism, respecting the human rights of all persons, defending the innocent and the helpless, and helping the poor and the needy are all examples of social justice. Prudent use and management of natural, economic, military, and human resources is also a function of social justice.
Gratitude, piety, and religion are also considered by-products of justice. It is only fair to be grateful; showing gratitude is not only good manners but a requirement of justice. Giving thanks and accepting thanks are required by justice, so saying “thank you” and “you’re welcome” are morally good and necessary to preserve harmony and peace. Piety is defined as the duty or devotion one has to one’s parents or country (patriotism). It comes from the same principle, and many cultures refer to the home nation as the motherland or the fatherland because it was the place that gave birth to and sustains the lives of the people who live there. Piety means showing respect and providing support and defense when needed. It also entails obedience, such as that of minor children to their parents or from adults to those in authority—be it civic, military, or ecclesiastical. Elderly or sick parents require support from their adult children because of the virtue of piety, which stems from justice. Defending your country from foreign or domestic enemies (unless the nation acts immorally) is a demand of justice and piety. Religion is the duty and obligation of people to worship the divine Creator. Justice demanded that some form of religion exist even before there was a supernatural religion revealed by God. The fact that every culture and society which ever existed had some form of religion, pagan or otherwise, comes from man’s realization that it is just and right and necessary to worship the Almighty Supreme Being.