Most of the Civil War was fought in the southern states, so southern women had to cope with destroyed property as well as the loss of family members.
Many white women, especially from plantation-owning families, turned their anger at defeat and destruction into hatred for all northerners.
For the next twenty-five years, many southern white women remained strongly opposed to women’s rights activists because many of those activists came from the abolitionist movement.
In 1868 New York World woman’s page editor Jane Cunningham Croly, whose pen name was “Jennie June,” was denied admission to a New York Press Club event because she was a woman.
Her reaction was to start her own club, made up of women with careers.
Called Sorosis, this club served as a kind of professional support group for its members.
Croly saw clubs like hers as creating strong ties among women, and she helped to inspire many other women, with careers and without, to form clubs with different educational, social, and professional aims.