Toothpaste has been around for thousands of years.
One of the earliest toothpaste was a mixture of wine and pumice.
The Egyptians used it with a chew stick some years ago.
From the early Roman Empire until 18th century Europe and America, urine was a main ingredient in toothpaste, because the ammonia in it is an excellent cleanser.
Ammonia, from other sources, is still a main ingredient in many toothpastes.
These days fluoride is the most popular active ingredient in toothpaste to prevent cavities, and sodium fluoride is the most common form.
Other ingredients in toothpaste include calcium phosphate for re-mineralization, and strontium chloride or potassium nitrate to reduce sensitivity, and Triclosan, an antibacterial agent to prevent gingivitis.