In 1947 Gerty Cod became the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in science, in physiology and medicine.
She and her husband, Carl, were awarded the prize jointly, for their work on glycogen metabolism, essentially, the way the body stores and breaks down sugar for use as energy.
During the 1930s Gerty Cod had often been criticized for working with her husband and was even told it was un-American (she had been born abroad, in what is now Czechoslovakia).
She was always given a lesser position than her husband and was not made a full professor until 1947, the year she won the Nobel Prize.
The top U.S. scientific organization, the National Academy of Sciences, did not invite her to become a member until 1948, after she won the Nobel Prize.