Black and white women usually had separate clubs in the late 1800s.
Denied membership in white club women’s national organizations, Mary Church Terrell in Washington, D.C., and Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin in Boston started two different national groups for African American women in the early 1890s.
In 1896 these two groups merged into the National Association of Colored Women (NACW), with Terrell as the first president.
Jewish women also had their own clubs, many of which started out as charity organizations for local synagogues. In 1893 Jewish women formed the National Council of Jewish Women, which was active in social reforms.
Mexican American women joined mutualistas (mutual-aid societies). These organizations offered group insurance, fought against discrimination, and encouraged literacy.
Under the motto “Lifting as we climb,” NACW members started day-care facilities, kindergartens, and other programs and fought for the rights of women and African Americans.